Nhà nhiều màu sắc ở Valparaiso Chí Lợi (internet)
Thành phố Valparaiso của Chí Lợi có dân số 272.000 (2002), vùng đô thị có dân số 930.000 . Quốc hội Chile được thành lập năm 1990 và đóng trụ sở ở đây. Trung tâm thành phố cách Santiago de Chile 111,8 km về phía tây bắc.
Trong lịch sử, Valparaíso từng đóng một vai trò rất quan trọng như là một địa điểm chính trị trong nửa cuối của thế kỷ 19, khi thành phố phục vụ như là một điểm dừng chân cho các tàu du lịch giữa Đại Tây Dương và Thái Bình Dương khi qua eo biển Magellan. Luôn luôn là một điểm đến thu hút người nhập cư châu Âu, các khu đô thị ở Valparaíso mọc lên như nấm vào thời hoàng kim của nó, khi thành phố được biết đến bởi các thủy thủ quốc tế với tên gọi "Little San Francisco" và "Jewel của Thái Bình Dương". Valparaiso là di sản thế giới UNESCO vào năm 2003.
đến Valparaiso 21-11-2015
Chờ đi Valparaiso
chó có thể ngửi được mùi trái cây
qua hải quan trước khi đi thăm Valparaiso, cấm mang trái cây
với tour guide
tại Plaza Sotomayor
nhà nhiều màu, đặc điểm của Valparaiso
Artillería funicular railway
du khách đông đảo
Bách khoa toàn thư mở Wikipedia
Một số cảnh quan ở Valparaíso, Bên trên bên trái: Tượng đài các anh hùng Los Heroes de Iquique ở quảng trường Sotomayor, Bên trên bên phải:cảnh trung tâm, bao gồm bãi biển Ancha, từ đồi Sebastiana, Giữa bên trái:Một mặt tiền nhà ở ở phố Atkinson, Giữa bên phải: Tháp đồng hồ Turry ở khu vực Cochrane, Dưới bên trái: Xe điện(funiculars) của Valparaíso ở đồi Concepcion, Dưới bên phải:Cảnh đêm của cảng Valparaíso và đại lộ Errazuriz
|Tên hiệu: The Jewel of the Pacific, Valpo|
|Tọa độ (city): Tọa độ:|
|• Kiểu||Khu tự quản|
|• Alcalde||Jorge Castro Muñoz|
|• Thành phố||401,6 km2 (1,551 mi2)|
|Độ cao||10 m (30 ft)|
|Dân số (2002)|
|• Thành phố||275.982|
|• Mật độ||69/km2 (180/mi2)|
|• Đô thị||275.141|
|• Nông thôn||841|
|• Nam giới||135.217|
|• Nữ giới||140.765|
|Múi giờ||CLT (UTC−4)|
|• Mùa hè (DST)||CLST (UTC−3)|
|Thành phố kết nghĩa||Lỗi Lua trong Mô_đun:Wikidata tại dòng 98: attempt to concatenate local 'label' (a nil value).|
|Trang web||Official website (tiếng Tây Ban Nha)|
Thành phố Valparaíso ( //, Tây Ban Nha: [balpaɾaˈiso]) là thành phố và khu tự quản trung tâm của vùng đô thị lớn thứ 3 Chile. Thành phố này là tỉnh lỵ tỉnh Valparaíso và vùng Valparaíso. Thành phố có dân số 272.000 (2002) người, vùng đô thị có dân số 930.000 người. Quốc hội Chile được thành lập ở đây năm 1990 và đóng trụ sở ở đây. Trung tâm thành phố cách Santiago de Chile 111,8 km về phía tây bắc.
Trong lịch sử, Valparaíso từng đóng một vai trò rất quan trọng như là một địa điểm chính trị trong nửa cuối của thế kỷ 19, khi thành phố phục vụ như là một điểm dừng chân cho các tàu du lịch giữa Đại Tây Dương và Thái Bình Dương khi qua eo biển Magellan. Luôn luôn là một điểm đến thu hút người nhập cư châu Âu, các khu đô thị ở Valparaíso mọc lên như nấm vào thời hoàng kim của nó, khi thành phố được biết đến bởi các thủy thủ quốc tế với tên gọi "Little San Francisco" và "Jewel của Thái Bình Dương". Các ví dụ về các vinh quang cũ của Valparaíso bao gồm sở giao dịch chứng khoán lâu đời nhất của châu Mỹ La tinh, sở cứu hỏa tình nguyện đầu tiên của lục địa, thư viện công cộng đầu tiên của Chile, và tờ báo lâu đời nhất ngôn ngữ Tây Ban Nha công bố liên tục trên thế giới. Việc mở kênh đào Panama và giảm giao thông tàu biển giáng một đòn vào kinh tế Valparaíso, mặc dù thành phố đã có một thời kỳ phục hồi ấn tượng trong những năm gần đây.
Mặc dù San Antonio gần đó đã trở thành cảng biển thương mại quan trọng nhất của đất nước về trọng tải di chuyển, thành phố của Valparaíso vẫn còn là một trung tâm văn hóa sôi động của Chile. Đại đô thị Valparaíso (bao gồm Valparaíso, Viña del Mar, Quilpué và Villa Alemana) có nồng độ dân số lớn thứ ba trong cả nước sau khi vùng đô thị Santiago và vùng đô thị Concepción.
Tham khảo[sửa | sửa mã nguồn]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other places with the same name, see Valparaiso (disambiguation).
Valparaíso, Top: View of Valparaíso Port, from Arti lleria Hills, 2nd left: Chilean Navy Office in Sotomayor Square, 2nd right: Tipica Houser (Casa Tipica) and Artilleria Hills, 3rd left: Atkinson Street (Calle Atkinson) in Concepcion Hill, 3rd middle: Valparaíso Custom House (Aduana de Valparaíso), nearby Sotomayor Square, 3rd right: Baron Cable-car in Ascensor area, Bottom upper left: Monument at the Heroes of Iquique in Sotomayor Square, Bottom lower left: Valparaíso Trolley bus in Serrano Street (Calle del Cerrano), Bottom upper middle: Saint Paul Anglican Church (Iglesia anglicana de San Pablo) in Concepcion Hill (built by William Lloyd [engineer]), Bottom lower middle: Templeman Street (Calle Templeman) in Alegre Hills, Bottom right: Turri Clock Tower on Prat Street
|Nickname(s): The Jewel of the Pacific, Valpo|
|Coordinates (city): Coordinates:|
|• Alcalde||Jorge Castro Muñoz (UDI)|
|• City||401.6 km2 (155.1 sq mi)|
|Elevation||10 m (30 ft)|
|Population (2012 census)|
|• Density||710/km2 (1,800/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CLT (UTC−4)|
|• Summer (DST)||CLST (UTC−3)|
|Area code(s)||(country) 56 + (city) 32|
|Website||Official website (Spanish)|
Valparaíso (//, Spanish: [balpaɾaˈiso]) is a major city, seaport, and educational center in the county or commune of Valparaíso, Chile. Greater Valparaíso is the second largest metropolitan area in the country. Valparaíso is located 111.8 kilometres (69.5 mi) northwest of Santiago and is one of the South Pacific's most important seaports. Valparaíso is the capital of Chile's third most populated administrative region and has been the headquarters for the Chilean National Congress since 1990.
Valparaíso played an important geopolitical role in the second half of the 19th century, when the city served as a major stopover for ships traveling between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans by crossing the Straits of Magellan. Valparaíso mushroomed during its golden age, as a magnet for European immigrants, when the city was known by international sailors as "Little San Francisco" and "The Jewel of the Pacific". In 2003, the historic quarter of Valparaíso was declared a United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World HeritageSite
Examples of Valparaíso's renown glory include Latin America's oldest stock exchange, the continent's first volunteerfire department, Chile's first public library, and the oldest Spanish language newspaper in continuous publication in the world, El Mercurio de Valparaíso.
The second half of the twentieth century was not kind to Valparaíso, as many wealthy families abandoned the city. The opening of the Panama Canal and reduction in ship traffic dealt a staggering blow to Valparaíso’s port-based economy. However, over the past 15 years, the city has staged an impressive renaissance, attracting many artists and cultural entrepreneurs who have set up shop in the city's hillside historic districts. Today, many thousands of tourists visit Valparaíso from around the world to marvel at the city's unique labyrinth of cobbled alleys and colorful buildings.The port of Valparaíso continues to be a major distribution center for container traffic, copper, and fruit exports. Valparaíso also receives growing attention from cruise ships that visit during the South American summer. Most significantly, Valparaíso has transformed itself into a major educational center with four large traditional universities and several large vocational colleges. The city has also become a shining beacon of Chilean culture, with many major festivals every year and street artists and musicians on every corner.
Valparaíso's bay was probably first populated by the Picunche natives, known for their agriculture, or the Changopeople, who were nomads dedicated to fishing, and traveling between modern-day Caldera and Concepcion.Spanish explorers, considered the first European discoverers of Chile, arrived in 1536 aboard the Santiaguillo, a supply ship sent by Diego de Almagro. The Santiaguillo carried men and supplies for Almagro's expedition, under the command of Juan de Saavedra, who named the town after his native village of Valparaíso de Arriba in Cuenca,Spain.
During Spanish colonial times, Valparaíso remained a small village, with only a few houses and a church. After Chile's independence from Spain (1818), beginning the Republican Era, Valparaíso became the main harbour for the nascent Chilean navy, and opened international trade opportunities that had been formerly limited to Spain and its other colonies.
Valparaíso soon became a desired stopover for ships rounding South America via the Straits of Magellanand Cape Horn. It gained particular importance supporting and supplying the California Gold Rush (1848–1858). As a major seaport, Valparaíso received immigrants from many European countries, mainly fromBritain, Germany, France, Switzerland and Italy. German, French, Italian and English were commonly spoken among its citizens, who founded and published newspapers in these languages.
International immigration transformed the local culture from Spanish origins and Amerindian origins, in ways that included the construction of the first non-Catholic cemetery of Chile, The Cemetery of Dissidents. Football (soccer) was introduced to Chile by English immigrants; and the first private Catholic school in Chile (Le Collège des Sacrés Cœurs, “The College of the Sacred Hearts”), French immigrants in Valparaíso; which has been operating for about 170 years. Immigrants from Scotlandand Germany founded the first private secular schools, (The Mackay School, and Die Deutsche Schule, respectively). Immigrants formed the first volunteer fire-fighting units (still a volunteer activity in Chile). Their buildings reflected a variety of European styles, making Valparaíso more varied than some other Chilean cities.
In August 18, 1906; a major earthquake struck Valparaíso; there was extensive property damage and thousands of deaths. The Chilean doctor Carlos Van Buren, of U.S. descent, was involved in medical care of earthquake victims. He later established a modern hospital Carlos Van Buren Hospital in 1912.
The golden age of Valparaíso's commerce ended after the opening of the Panama Canal (1914). Shipping shifted to the canal as captains sought to avoid the risks of the Strait of Magellan. The port's use and traffic declined significantly, causing a decline in the city's economy. Since the turn of the 21st century, shipping has increased in the last few decades with fruit exports, increasing opening of the Chilean economy to world commerce, and larger-scale, Post-Panamax ships that do not fit the Panama Canal.
On March 28, 1814, the USS Essex is defeated by British frigates Phoebe and Cherub during the War of 1812, leading to the deaths of 58 US Marines. (Captain David Porter, a survivor of this attack, would retire to Portersville, IN and request changing the name to Valparaíso, commemorating the only naval battle he ever lost.) By August 2, 1820, the Liberating Expedition of Peru sails from Valparaíso.
At half past ten on the evening of November 19, 1822 Valparaíso experienced occurs a violent earthquake that leaves the city in ruins; of the 16,000 residents, casualties included at least 66 adults and 12 children, as well as 110 people wounded. Among them was Account Liberator of Chile and later its Supreme Director Bernardo O'Higgins who was sleeping in the governor's mansion and died under its rubble. The next day a meteor trail was visible from Quillota to Valparaíso, seen as a religious experience for much of the population.
In 1826, the Royal Navy Great Britain establishes a South America Station in Valparaíso to maintain British naval interest in the region. It would remain until 1837 when it was relocated to Esquimalt, British Columbia.
September 12, 1827 saw the establishment of El Mercurio de Valparaíso, currently the oldest circulating newspaper in theSpanish language worldwide.
In May 1828, a constitutional convention begins regular meeting in the church of San Francisco. By August 9, theConstitution of the Republic of Chile would be fully drafted and disseminated.
On June 6, 1837, Minister Diego Portales is shot at the port outside of Baron Hill on suspicion of promoting conspirators who opposed the Peru-Bolivian Confederation, considered a turning point of Chilean public opinion and the purpose of the war.
By 1851, the first fire brigade in the country is formed. The next year potable running water becomes available, as well as the first telegraph service in Latin America, between the city and Santiago. It would be another four years before streetlights, with 700 gas lanterns, are installed. In 1861 the first tram company is formed, mostly using horse or mules to draw them, and fully established over the next few years.
Taking advantage of the total lack of defenses a Spanish fleet commanded by Casto Méndez Núñez bombarded the city during the Spanish-South American war in 1866. Chilean merchant ships are sunk, except for those vessels whose captains hoisted foreign flags.
A merger of the National Steamship Company and Chilean Steamship Company, the South American Steamship Companywas created as a national response to the increasing dominance of the Pacific Steam Navigation Company in 1872. In 1880 the Chilean Telephone Company is formed by Americans Joseph Husbands, Peter MacKellar, James Martin, and the US consul Lucius Foot, the first official telephone company in the country. Three years later on the first of December, Concepción funicular opens, the first of many hydraulic systems.
After the country's independence and its consequent openness to international trade, Valparaíso becomes an important port of call on trade routes through the Eastern Pacific. Many immigrants settled there, mostly from Europe and North America, who helped include Valparaíso and Chile in the industrial revolution sweeping other parts of the world. This created a different city with civil, financial, commercial and industrial institutions, many of which still exist today.
All this resulted in a population increases. The city reached more than 160,000 inhabitants in the late nineteenth century, making it necessary to use the steep hills for more houses, mansions and even cemeteries. The lack of available land caused the city authorities and developers to reclaim low lying tidal marshland (polder) to build administrative, commercial and industrial infrastructure.
The twentieth century began with the first big protest of dockworkers, Chile on April 15, 1903, due to complaints by Dockers about their excessive working hours and demands for higher wages, requests that were ignored by employers, creating a tense situation that led to serious violence on May 12. There were protests and the burning of the CSAV offices and several people were shot and killed. All this prompted intervention by the state. This protest was important for the future of Trade Unionism in the country.
The same year, electric trams appeared.
The 1906 Valparaíso earthquake caused severe damage throughout the city on August 16, which was at that time the heart of the Chilean economy.
Damage was valued at hundreds of millions of pesos of the time, and human victims were counted at 3,000 dead and over 20,000 injured. After removing the debris, reconstruction work began. These included the widening of streets, culverting and covering streams, (Jaime and Delicias - creating the current avenues Francia and Argentina respectively). The main street of the city (Pedro Montt) was laid and Plaza O'Higgins was created a hill was removed to allow the passage of Colon Street. The damaged Edwards mansion was demolished and in its place the present Cathedral of Valparaíso was built and, among many other works, this gave shape to the current Almendral Valparaíso area.
In 1910 the port expansion work of the city, which ended in 1930, began. A long breakwater was built, along with piers and docking terminals.
The opening of the Panama Canal in 1914 caused a severe reduction of port activity as Valparaíso lost its vital role as the major stopping point for shipping going from the North Atlantic to the North Pacific via the Magellan channel.
Currently Chile's legislature along with other institutions of national importance like the National Customs Service, the National Fish and Aquaculture Ministry, the Ministry of Culture and the Barracks General of the Chilean Navy are sited in the city. In addition to the capital of the Valparaíso Region hosts the Regional Administration and government.
In February 2013, about 105 homes were destroyed in Valparaíso, affecting 1,200 people. On April 13, 2014 a huge brush fire burned out of control, destroying 2,800 homes and killing 16 people, forcing President Michelle Bachelet to declare it a disaster zone.
Valparaíso is located in central Chile, 120 km (75 mi) to the north west of the capital Santiago. Valparaíso, like most of Chile, is vulnerable to earthquakes. Before the earthquake of February 27, 2010, which measured 8.8 on the moment magnitude scale, the last catastrophic earthquake to strike Valparaíso devastated the city in August 1906, killing nearly 3,000 people. Other significant earthquakes to affect the city were the 1730 Valparaíso earthquake and the 1985 Algarrobo earthquake.
Because of Valparaíso's proximity to the Peru–Chile Trench, the city is vulnerable to earthquakes. The Peru–Chile Trench stores large amounts of energy for a very long time and sometimes ruptures after short intervals in a violent earthquake.
Valparaíso has a very mild Mediterranean climate (Köppen Csb) closely resembling that of San Francisco or Santa Barbara at a similar latitude in the northern hemisphere. The summer is essentially dry, but the city is affected by fogs from the Humboldt Current during most of the year. In the winter, rainfall can occasionally be extremely heavy when a powerful frontal system crosses central Chile, but frequency of such rains varies greatly from year to year. Snowfall occurs rarely in the highest parts of the city. In winter, strong winds can make the thermal sensation drop below the freezing point.
|[hide]Climate data for Valparaíso, Chile (1961–1990, extremes 1961–2010)|
|Record high °C (°F)||31.2|
|Average high °C (°F)||20.8|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||17.0|
|Average low °C (°F)||13.5|
|Record low °C (°F)||3.0|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||0.4|
|Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)||0.1||0.0||0.4||1.3||3.7||5.6||6.3||4.0||2.7||1.5||0.7||0.3||27.3|
|Average relative humidity (%)||72||74||76||78||80||80||80||79||78||75||71||70||76.1|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||279.0||245.7||217.0||174.0||114.7||81.0||93.0||117.8||147.0||170.5||216.0||263.5||2,119.2|
|Source #1: Meteorología Interactiva, Latin American Climate Assessment & Dataset (extremes 1961–2010)[a]|
|Source #2: Climate & Temperature (humidity and sunshine hours)|
|Historic Quarter of the Seaport City of Valparaíso|
|Name as inscribed on the World Heritage List|
|UNESCO region||Latin America and the Caribbean|
|Inscription||2003 (27th Session)|
Nicknamed "The Jewel of the Pacific", Valparaíso was declared a world heritage site based upon its improvised urban design and unique architecture. In 1996, the World Monuments Fund declared Valparaíso's unusual system offunicular lifts (steeply inclined carriages) one of the world's 100 most endangered historical treasures. In 1998, grassroots activists convinced the Chilean government and local authorities to apply for UNESCO world heritage status for Valparaíso. Valparaíso was declared a World Heritage Site in 2003. Built upon dozens of steep hillsides overlooking the Pacific Ocean, Valparaíso boasts a labyrinth of streets and cobblestone alleyways, embodying a rich architectural and cultural legacy. Valparaíso is protected as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
- Iglesia de la Matriz
- Plaza Aníbal Pinto
- Plaza Sotomayor
- 16 remaining funiculars (called ascensores): 15 public (national monuments) and 1 private (which belongs to "Hospital Carlos Van Buren").
- The Concepcion and Alegre historical district
- The Bellavista hill, which has the "Museo a Cielo Abierto" or "open sky museum"
- Monument to Admiral Lord Thomas Alexander Cochrane, 10th Earl of Dundonald
- Monument to Manuel Blanco Encalada, first Chilean President
- Cemeteries on the hill - Cemetery Number One (Catholic) and Dissidents Cemetery (Protestant)
Although technically only Chile's 6th largest city, with an urban area population of 263,499 (275,982 in municipality), the Greater Valparaíso metropolitan area, including the neighbouring cities of Viña del Mar, Concón, Quilpué and Villa Alemana, is the second largest in the country (803,683 inhabitants).
According to the 2002 census of the National Statistics Institute, the commune of Valparaíso spans an area of 401.6 km2 (155 sq mi) and has 275,982 inhabitants (135,217 men and 140,765 women). Of these, 275,141 (99.7%) lived in urban areas and 841 (0.3%) in rural areas. The population fell by 2.4% (6858 persons) between the 1992 and 2002 censuses.
As a commune, Valparaíso is a third-level administrative division of Chile administered by a municipal council, headed by an alcalde who is directly elected every four years. The 2008–2012 alcalde is Jorge Castro Muñoz. The council has the following members:
- Alberto Neumann La
- Absalón Opazo Lazcano
- Eugenio González Bernal
- Eugenio Trincado Suárez
- Abel Gallardo
- Marina Huerta Rosales
- Máximo Silva Herrera
- Jaime Barrientos Ramírez
- Manuel Murillo Calderón
- Luis Soto Ramírez
Within the electoral divisions of Chile, Valparaíso is represented in the Chamber of Deputies by Mr. Joaquín Godoy (RN) and Mr. Aldo Cornejo (PDC) as part of the 13th electoral district, (together with Juan Fernández and Isla de Pascua). The commune is represented in the Senate by Francisco Chahuán Chahuán (RN) and Ricardo Lagos Weber (PPD) as part of the 6th senatorial constituency (Valparaíso-Coast).
Major industries include tourism, culture, shipping and freight transport.
Approximately 50 international cruise ships call on Valparaíso during the 4-month Chilean summer. The port of Valparaíso is also an important hub for container freight and exports many products, including wine, copper, and fresh fruit.
Currently in Valparaíso there are 2 large shopping centres and various other major retail development:
- Portal Valparaíso (Jumbo/Easy/Paris/La Polar)
- Harbour Station Mall
- Baron Square
- Kenrick Mall
- Axis Avenida Pedro Montt
- Axis Avenida Uruguay
- Axis Avenida Condell
Port of Valparaíso
Valparaíso received its first ship in 1536 with the arrival of the 'Santiaguillo', which supported the expedition of Diego de Almagro.
In 1810 a wealthy merchant built the first pier in the history of Chile and the first during the colonial era, in the place where now stands the building of El Mercurio de Valparaíso, since at that time the sea came to this point (due to work to reclaim land from the sea it is now five blocks away). Between 1910 and 1930 he built much of the existing port of the city, including much of the land reclamation work that now provides the city's commercial centre.
Currently the port of Valparaíso is divided into ten sites which sites 1,2,3,4 and 5 are administered by South Pacific Terminal SA and sites 6,7,8,9 and 10 for Valparaíso Port Company. The last two sites include a dock and are used as public walks and cruise passenger terminal.
Valparaíso is the main container and passenger port in Chile, transferring 10 million tons annually, and serves about 50 cruises and 150,000 passengers.
A rapid transit light rail system, the Valparaíso Metro, opened to the public on 24 November 2005. The creation of this system involved updating parts of the direct railway line, originally built in 1863, that once linked Santiago and Valparaíso, and the cities in between. The Valparaíso Metro now connects the city core of Valparaíso with Viña del Mar and other cities. The Metro constitutes the so-called "fourth stage" ("Cuarta Etapa") of Metropolitan improvements. The metro railway extends along most of Gran Valparaíso, and is the second subway system in operation in Chile (after Santiago's), as it includes an underground section that crosses Viña del Mar's commercial district.
Public transport within Valparaíso itself is provided primarily by buses, trolleybuses and funiculars. The buses provide an efficient and regular service to and from the city centre and the numerous hills where most people live, as well as to neighbouring towns while more distant towns are served by long-distance coaches. Buses are operated by several private companies and regulated by the Regional Ministry of Transport, which controls fares and routes. TheValparaíso trolleybus system has been in operation since 1952, and in 2015 it continues to use some of its original vehicles, built in 1952 by the Pullman-Standard Company, along with an assortment of other vehicles acquired later.Some of Valparaíso's Pullman trolleybuses are even older, built in 1946–48, having been acquired secondhand from Santiago in the 1970s. The surviving Pullman trolleybuses are the oldest trolleybuses still in normal service anywhere in the world, and they were collectively declared National Historic Monuments by the Chilean government in 2003.
Valparaíso's road infrastructure has been undergoing substantial improvement, particularly with the completion of the "Curauma — Placilla — La Pólvora" freeway bypass, which will allow trucks to go directly to the port facility over a modern highway and through tunnels, without driving through the historic and already congested down-town streets. In addition, roads to link Valparaíso to San Antonio, Chile's second largest port, and the coastal towns in between (Laguna Verde, Quintay, Algarrobo, and Isla Negra, for example), are also under various degrees of completion. Travel between Valparaíso and Santiago currently takes about 80 minutes via a modern toll highway.
Internal passenger air services to Valparaíso are provided through the airport at Quintero which is some distance from the city but now served by good roads. The great majority of foreign visitors arrive through Santiago or on cruise liners.
Main article: Funicular railways of Valparaíso
Because the slopes of the hills, many of the surrounding areas of Valparaíso are inaccessible by public transport. That is why "elevators" serve the function of communicating the high part of the city with the plan, besides being strong holiday highlight. The only elevator that can truly be called as such, is the Ascensor Polanco, because it is vertical. Meanwhile, the rest are cable cars but traditionally called elevators. Several of those funiculars – locally called ascensores – provide public transport service between the central area and the lower slopes of the surrounding hills, the first of which (Ascensor Concepción, also known as Ascensor Turri) opened in 1883 and is, operated by steam, still in service. The Cerro Cordillera elevator was built in 1887. As many as 28 different funicular railways have served Valparaíso at one time or another, of which 14 were still in operation in 1992 and still around 12 in 2010.
Valparaíso has currently fifteen lifts declared Historical Monuments by the National Monuments Council. Five are municipal property and the remaining belong to four private companies. The elevators are elevators municipal Baron (detained for work), El Peral, Polanco, Queen Victoria and St. Augustine (arrested for jobs). As for the rest, lifts Florida, Butterflies and Nuns are owned by the National Elevator Company SA; Artillery, Concepción and Mountains belong to the Society of Mechanical Lifts Valparaíso Holy Spirit, Larraín and Villaseca (stopped for repairs) are the property of Valparaíso Elevators Company SA, and Dairy (stopped by fire) belongs to the Society of Dairy Cerro Lifts Ltd.
During Valparaíso's golden age (1848–1914), the city received large numbers of immigrants, primarily from Europe. The immigrant communities left a unique imprint on the city's noteworthy architecture. Each community built its own churches and schools, while many also founded other noteworthy cultural and economic institutions. The largest immigrant communities came from Britain, Germany, and Italy, each developing their own hillside neighbourhood, preserved today as National Historic Districts or "Zonas Típicas."
During the second half of the 20th century, Valparaíso experienced a great decline, as wealthy families de-gentrified the historic quarter, moving to bustling Santiago or nearby Viña del Mar. By the early 1990s, much of the city's unique heritage had been lost and many Chileans had given up on the city. But in the mid-1990s, a grass roots preservation movement blossomed in Valparaíso where nowadays also a vast number of murals created by graffiti artists can be viewed on the streets, alleyways and stairways.
The Fundación Valparaíso (Valparaíso Foundation), founded by the North American poet Todd Temkin, has executed major neighborhood redevelopment projects; has improved the city's tourist infrastructure; and administers the city's jazz, ethnic music, and opera festivals; among other projects. Some noteworthy foundation projects include the World Heritage Trail,Opera by the Sea, and Chile's "Cultural Capital". During recent years, Mr. Temkin has used his influential Sunday column in El Mercurio de Valparaíso to advocate for many major policy issues, such as the creation of a "Ley Valparaíso" (Valparaíso Law) in the Chilean Congress, and the possibility that the Chilean government must guarantee funding for the preservation of Valparaíso's beloved funicular elevators.
Valparaíso's newspaper, El Mercurio de Valparaíso is the oldest Spanish-language newspaper in circulation in the world.
The Fundacion LUKAS maintains the drawings and paintings of the cartoonist Renzo Antonio Giovanni Pecchenino Raggi (stage name LUKAS), who came to symbolize Valparaíso in popular culture, in a new restored building overlooking the bay.
Valparaíso is also home to the so-called "School of Valparaíso", which is in fact the Faculty of Architecture & Urbanism of the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso. The "School of Valparaíso" was in the 1960s and 1970s one of the most experimental, avant garde and controversial Architectural schools in the country.
Valparaíso stages a major festival attended by hundreds of thousands of participants on the last three days of every year. The festival culminates with a "New Year's by the Sea" fireworks show, the biggest in all of Latin America, attended by a million tourists who fill the coastline and hillsides with a view of the bay. Even though everyone calls it the Valparaíso Fireworks, it is in fact a fireworks display running along a great part of the coast from Valparaíso, past Viña del Mar and all the way to Concón.
The Chilean Congress meets in a modern building in the Almendral section of Valparaíso, after relocation from Santiago during the last years of the dictatorship of General Augusto Pinochet. Although congressional activities were to be legally moved by a ruling in 1987, the newly built site only began to function as the seat of Congress during the government of Patricio Aylwin in 1990.
In 2003, the Chilean Congress declared Valparaíso to be "Chile's Cultural Capital" and home for the nation's new cultural ministry.
Valparaíso offers various urban nightlife activities. Traditional bars and nightclubs can be found near Plaza Sotomayor. A vivid guide to Valparaíso can be found in the novels of Cayetano Brule, the private detective who lives in a Victorian house in the picturesque Paseo Gervasoni in Cerro Concepción.
The public healthcare system mainly relies on the Hospital Carlos Van Buren located at the plan and Hospital Valparaíso (officially Hospital Eduardo Pereira) located at St. Roque Hill. There are also several clinics like Universidad de Chile's Clinica Barón, Hospital Aleman (due to close), and the former Naval Hospital on Playa Ancha Hill.
Valparaíso has several public sports venues and facilities, including a growing network of cycle routes.
- The Club Deportivo Playa Ancha (Playa Ancha Sports Club), located in Av. Playa Ancha 451, Cerro Playa Ancha, opened in 1919 and offers football pitches, table football, basketball and tennis courts, two swimming pools and a small gym. Tennis and swimming lessons are held in the club as well as local tournaments, and the pool can be used recreationally in summer.
- The Complejo Deportivo Escuela Naval (Naval School Sports Centre), located at General Hontaneda, Cerro Playa Ancha, offers Olympic-standard modern facilities with a heated swimming pool and indoor volleyball, basketball, gymnastics, judo and fencing areas. It also has extensive outdoor sports facilities, suitable for rugby, football and tennis.
- The Estadio Elías Figueroa Brander (formerly Chiledeportes Regional Stadium) is located at the junction of Hontaneda and Subida Carvallo, Cerro Playa Ancha, This stadium has historic links to the local football team, Santiago Wanderers, the oldest professional football team in Chile founded on August 15, 1892. Built in 1931, it holds 18,500 people and also serves as an athletics and swimming venue.
- Fortín Prat (Fort Prat), located at Rawson 382, Almendral, is a historic basketball venue, hosting the "golden age" of Valparaíso basketball from 1950 to 1970. Fort Prat has also hosted numerous local handball, table tennis and boxing championships. It offers children's classes and a gym, and is also home to the Valparaíso Basketball Association Museum.
- The Muelle Deportivo Curauma is located 20 minutes from Valparaíso in Lake Pañuelas at Avenue Borde Laguna and Curauma. The calm waters of the 195 km2 lagoon permits rowing, kayaking, fishing and boating. It has also been chosen as a venue for the 2014 South American Games. Around the lagoon are camping sites, cycle and hiking trails, and paintball and canopy facilities.
- The Puerto Deportivo Valparaíso, located at Muelle Barón, Bordemar Centro, is a watersports centre which offers sailing, kayaking and scuba diving lessons and hosts the "Valpo Sub" program that seeks to preserve the area's underwater heritage, offering educational tours and expeditions to shipwrecks along the bay. Puerto Deportivo Valparaíso also carries out programs promoting ecotourism in Valparaíso Bay, and rents equipment for people having lessons. It features an interactive room that shows information on the underwater heritage.
- The Velódromo Roberto Parra is located opposite the Club Deportivo Playa Ancha and is part of its wider complex. The velodrome contains a cycle track, table football, and handball and basketball courts. All its facilities are available for public rent.
The "Valparaíso Downhill" is a mountain bike race that takes place in February. Riders race through the city streets tackling the steps and alleys, finding their own way through the ramps and jumps down to the "plan" (Valparaíso's "lowlands"). The Valparaíso Downhill has been described by Chop MTB as "the craziest urban downhill race of all".
Since 2005, a series of running events has taken place in the city with 5K, 10K, 21K and marathon distances. The race starts at Muelle Barón and the course runs along the seafront, crossing diverse architectural and geographical landmarks.
The final stage of the 2014 Dakar Rally ended up at Valparaíso's Plaza Sotomayor in the heart of the old town, surrounded by historic buildings. Ignacio Casale, the Chilean winner of the 2014 Quad category, was cheered here in the streets by the Valparaíso crowd.
At primary school level, Valparaíso boasts some of the most emblematic schools in the region, such as the Liceo Eduardo de la Barra and Salesian College Valparaíso. The latter has or the marching band and instrumental oldest and largest Chile founded in 1896. Other landmarks of the city schools are the Mary Help of Christians School, San Rafael Seminary, the Lycée Jean d'Alembert, Colegio San Pedro Nolasco, Scuola Italiana Arturo Dell' Oro and Deutsche Schule Valparaiso, among others. Many of the schools named in the plan is located in the city, concentrated in the Almendral neighborhood.
In addition, Valparaíso was the birthplace of many private schools founded by the European colonies, as the German School, the Alliance Francaise, Mackay College (now located in the neighboring resort of Viña del Mar) and the College of the Sacred Hearts of Valparaíso, that operating since 1837 is the oldest private school in South America.
Valparaíso is characterized by being a university town, due to the extensive amount of existing higher education institutions in the city. In the city sets some of the most important universities of Chile, as the Pontifical Catholic University of Valparaíso, Universidad de Playa Ancha and the Technical University Federico Santa Maria. The latter university is visible from much of the city, as it is located on the front of Cerro Placeres, and has a characteristic building Tudor Gothic and Renaissance. Another important traditional university in the city is the University of Valparaíso. The city has many colleges nontraditional varying size, quality and focus.
|Federico Santa María Technical University||1931||UTFSM/USM||Private university|
|Pontifical Catholic University of Valparaíso||1925||UCV/PUCV||Private university|
|Playa Ancha University of Educational Sciences||1948||UPLA||Public university|
|University of Valparaíso||1981||UV||Public university|
Valparaíso is the birthplace of many historically significant figures, including:
- Salvador Allende
- Augusto Pinochet
- Camilo Mori
- Marsia Alexander-Clarke, artist
- Roberto Ampuero, author of the internationally published novels about the private eye Cayetano Brulé and "Hijo Ilustre" of Valparaíso
- Giancarlo Monsalve, international Opera singer, Cultural Ambassador of Valparaíso and UNESCO medal
- Sergio Badilla Castillo founder of poetic transrealism in contemporary poetry
- Curt Echtermeyer, also known as Curt Bruckner (1896–1971), painter
- Abelardo Quinteros, composer
- John Christian Watson, Australia's third Prime Minister.
- Ernestina Pérez Barahona, physician
- Elvira Santa Cruz Ossa, dramatist and novelist
It has also been the residence of many artists, such as Chilean poet Pablo Neruda and Nicaraguan poet Rubén Darío.
Puerto Rican pro-independence leader Segundo Ruiz Belvis died in the city in November 1867.
từ trên đỉnh ngọn đồi nhìn xuống vịnh của thành phố Vina del Mar
sao không dám nhìn
trên đường về cảng Valparaiso
Vina del Mar
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For the writer, see.
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (April 2011)|
|Vina del Mar|
|City and Commune|
From top-left: the Flower Clock, Wulff Castle, the Viña del Mar Casino, Marga-Marga river, skyline of the city, the beach, the city as dusk.
|Nickname(s): Ciudad Jardín (Garden City)|
|Coordinates (city): Coordinates:|
|Viña del Mar||May 31, 1878|
|• Alcalde||Virginia Reginato Bozzo (UDI)|
|• City andCommune||121.6 km2 (47.0 sq mi)|
|Elevation||2 m (7 ft)|
|Population (2012 Census)|
|• City andCommune||324,836|
|• Density||2,700/km2 (6,900/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CLT (UTC-4)|
|• Summer (DST)||CLST (UTC−3)|
|Area code(s)||+56 32|
|Website||Municipality of Viña del Mar|
Viña del Mar (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈbiɲa ðel maɾ] meaning "Vineyard of the Sea"), is a city and commune on central Chile's Pacific coast. Often referred as "La Ciudad Jardín" ("The Garden City"), Viña del Mar is located within theValparaíso Region, and it's Chile's fourth largest city with a population of 324,836 (according to the 2012 census). Viña del Mar is also part of the Greater Valparaíso area, the country's third largest metropolitan area (pop. 803,683, 2002 census), after the Metropolitan areas of Santiago and Concepción. The Greater Valparaíso Area is home to 5 municipalities: Valparaíso, Viña del Mar, Concon, Quilpue, and Villa Alemana.
Viña del Mar is known for its placid resorts, malls, extensive coastal high buildings, hotels and various entertainment venues. The city attracts an important influx of national as well as international visitors throughout the year.
The valley where Viña del Mar was founded was known as the valley of Peuco by the Changos, native inhabitants of the area dedicated to fishing. With the arrival of the Spanish conquistadores the valley was divided into two large haciendas. North of the Marga Marga creek up to the current location of Reñaca, Viña del Mar, and to the south up to the current Cerro Barón (Baron Hill), the Hacienda Las Siete Hermanas (The Seven Sisters).
Francisco Javier Alvares authorized the construction of a railroad through his lands to join Santiago and the port of Valparaíso. The arrival of the railroad brought a young engineer Jose Francisco Vergara who married Francisco Javier Alvares’s granddaughter, Mercedes Alvares. It was José Francisco Vergara who instigated the idea of the creation of a new city independent of Valparaíso.
Arrival of the railroad and founding
The establishment of Refinadora de Azúcar de Viña del Mar (Sugar Refining Company), CRAV in 1873 and the arrival of the British company of Lever & Murphy in 1883 gave the necessary economic push to transform the young city into one of the most important cities of Chile. The building of a military installation, Regimiento Coraceros in 1917, naval facilities in Las Salinas, and the housing of military and naval personnel furthered the city's growth. That year, also, a seaside villa was rebuilt as what is known today as Wulff Castle.
In 1925, the Teatro Municipal was opened in its current location in the eastern front of the city's downtown square, Plaza de Viña del Mar. In 1928 president Carlos Ibáñez del Campo authorized the creation of a casino, securing the future and the touristy character of the city. The Casino Municipal de Viña del Mar was opened on December 31, 1930. On January 31, 1931, the Presidential Palace was inaugurated in Cerro Castillo (Castle Hill) as a summer residence for the Chilean President. The touristy character of the city was furthered with the inauguration of the O'Higgins Hotel in 1936 and the inauguration of the Miramar Hotel by Caleta Abarca Beach in 1945. For a few years in the early 1960s, a trolleybus line connected the city with Valparaíso, and the electric route network included three branches within Viña.
Viña del Mar was one of the four host cities of the 1962 football (soccer) World Cup. It is now home to CD Everton, a soccer team in the Chilean Premier division, which took its name from the English team.
According to the 1982 movie, Missing and other sources, Vina Del Mar was focal point for the plotters of the 1973 Chilean coup d'état.
Viña del Mar was declared a sister city of Sausalito, California (a city north of San Francisco), in 1971. To demonstrate the sister city relationship, you can find a square (plaza) called "Viña del Mar" in downtown Sausalito, and a "Sausalito" stadium and "Sausalito" lagoon in Viña del Mar. Viña del Mar is also a sister city of Mar del Plata, Argentina since 1993.
During the 1980s, a global economic downturn seriously affected the city, a number of small and medium-sized factories went bankrupt, including the stationery manufacturer Coda, and most importantly, CRAV, and Textiles Viña, two of the biggest employers in the city. Unemployment rose to alarmingly high rates. Many factories started to consolidate their operations in Santiago making the situation even worse. The city has failed to fully recover from the blows inflicted by the economic downturn of 1982, but an increase in the number of international tourists visiting the city, and the recent high prices of copper in world markets have promoted an economic recovery.
Extensive commercial redevelopment in the 15 Norte Avenue area, previously an abandoned industrial area, has seen most of the large Chilean retail chains settling in the area, which is now covered with large shopping malls, like Marina Arauco, cinemas, fast food stores, and supermarkets.
The city has benefitted from major investments in infrastructure that have greatly improved the traffic flow in the downtown area, especially in routes connecting Viña del Mar with Santiago, Valparaíso and Quilpué. A modern and efficient subway (Merval) connects Viña del Mar with the cities of Limache and Valparaíso, following the original railroad tracks between Valparaíso and Santiago.
|This section does not cite any sources. (November 2009)|
Visitors and locals enjoy the parks and water fountains of the city, including a large flower clock (Reloj de Flores) with its numbers made up of flowering plants, near Caleta Abarca beach. The Valparaiso Sporting Club horse racing track is another major landmark. Jardín Botánico or Parque del Salitre, a rather large botanical garden on the outskirts of the city, was originally designed and built by an entrepreneur who got rich from exploiting saltpeter resources in northern Chile.
A few buildings from the 19th century still remain after multiple earthquakes that have destroyed most of the old areas of the city. Most of the older buildings that remain are located along Avenida Libertad (Liberty Avenue), Quillota Street and Quinta Vergara, a rather large park in the middle of the city. The presidential summer residence, Castillo Presidencial (Presidential Castle) is located on Cerro Castillo (Castle Hill).
The city's casino was designed with art deco style and is surrounded by well-tended gardens (hence the city's nickname). In 2002 a hotel (Hotel del Mar) was added to the 1930s building, resembling the architectural features of the original building.
Palacio Rioja, a mansion built by Fernando Rioja in 1907, located on Quillota Street, houses an environmental museum. The Fonck Museum, located in Cuatro Norte Street, has a large exhibition of pre-Columbian articles, and a large moai (Easter Island statue made of volcanic rock), the only one in mainland Chile, is also on display. Palacio Carrasco, built by Emilio Carrasco in 1912, now houses the Municipal Library and also is used for arts exhibitions. The building is also surrounded by nice gardens adorned with fine sculptures including a Rodin. Palacio Vergara located in Quinta Vergara was built by Blanca Vergara (daughter of José Francisco) in 1906 and it is now owned by the municipality. It currently houses the School of Fine Arts and has produced important Chilean artists like the painter Giancarlo Bertini.
Palacio Brunet (also known as "Castillo Yarur") was built in 1923 by Adolfo Brunet on Cerro Castillo, close to the presidential mansion. Currently it is owned byCarabineros de Chile (Chilean police) and is used as a reception center for important visitors. It was declared a national monument in 2005.
Palacio Carrasco and its surrounding park, located on Liberty Avenue #250, between 3 and 4 Norte, was completed in 1923. For years it was a private residence until it moved to the Municipality of Viña del Mar. After moving it to its current location in Arlegui street, the Palacio Carrasco became a Library Benjamín Vicuña Mackenna, public library of the commune, while working as center for events, art exhibitions, and cultural workshops. It is very important to stress that the building is totally unsuitable for use as a public library and the community needs to build a new recint for this purpose. Outside the entrance to the Palacio Carrasco there a sculpture by Auguste Rodin called "La Defensa". It was declared a National Historic Monument on September 8, 1986 under Supreme Decree No. 791.
Castillo Wulff, iconic building of the commune, of neo-Tudor style, built in 1906. Strategically located in the coastal border between the mouth of Marga Marga and Caleta Abarca (Avenida Marina N° 37). Was built by Don Gustavo Wulff Mowle (1862–1946) businessman and philanthropist of Valparaíso. The building was designed in two floors connected to a torreón through a medieval-style bridge. In 1995 it was declared a national monument, but today houses the offices of the headquarters of the Heritage Unit of the Municipality of Viña del Mar and the distinguish club unión Árabe Castillo del Mar (Arabic union club)on av. marina
Numerous bars and restaurants have recently opened in the area around Plaza México and Avenida San Martín, offering Chilean and international cuisine. Seafood restaurants are located on the Camino Costero (Coast Roadway) that joins Viña del Mar and Concón, a coastal town to the north.
The Yacht Club de Chile is a yacht club located in Caleta Higuerillas. This club was established in Viña del Mar in 1955, though it is now part of the Concón municipality.
The VTR Open was a professional men's tennis tournament played yearly on outdoor red clay courts at the Club Naval de Campo Las Salinas.
The Viña del Mar International Film Festival is considered within the most important film festivals in Chile and Latin America.
Another important event is the Viña del Mar International Song Festival, held at the amphitheater located in the Quinta Vergara, one of the largest green areas of the city. The amphitheater of the Quinta Vergara was built in the 1960s.
There is also the Palacio Vergara, home to Viña's fine arts museum.
The Municipal Theatre of Viña del Mar, located in front of Plaza de Viña, is a center of cultural and artistic events of first importance in Chile. In the neighboring block is also the traditional and elegant Club de Viña, with its classical facade.
The Museum of Naval Canons is an outdoor museum, located on the road Jorge Montt (connecting Viña del Mar with the beaches of Las Salinas and Reñaca), whose beach exhibits several pieces of artillery, in front of the facilities of the Chilean Navy.
The Fonk Museum founded in 1937, is a varied and complete museum that shows objects from native villages from cultures such as Rapanui, atacameños,Diaguitas and Mapuches. In addition of a wide collection of Peruvian pre-Columbian jars. In the area of natural sciences there is a complete sample of arthropodsand animals of different zones of the country.
Viña del Mar has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate with coastal influence of the Humboldt Current. In January minimum temperatures range between 59 °F (15 °C) and 64 °F (18 °C) while in July vary between 48 °F (9 °C) and 55 °F (14 °C). The rain falls mainly in autumn and winter, with July being the rainiest (107 mm). The average annual rainfall totals 480 mm.
|Viña del Mar|
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Several superior educational institutions (universities), both public and private, are located in Viña del Mar:
- Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso with its Architecture (Recreo), Arts (Miraflores), Philosophy and Education (Sausalito) and History (Alvarez Avenue) campus
- Universidad de Valparaíso has Business and Administration, Marine Sciences and Engineering faculties
- Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María located in the limit between Valparaiso and Viña del Mar (España avenue).
- Universidad de Viña del Mar located in Rodelillo.
- Universidad Andrés Bello
- Universidad del Mar
- Universidad de las Américas located above the city Mall
- Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez
- Instituto Profesional ARCOS 
The Chilean Navy also operates several technical schools and a planetarium in Las Salinas at the northwest edge of the city.
According to the 2002 census of the National Statistics Institute, Viña del Mar had 286,931 inhabitants (136,318 men and 150,613 women), making the commune an entirely urban area. The population grew by 0.5% (1,477 persons) between the 1992 and 2002 censuses. Viña del Mar accounts for 18.63% of the regional population.
The city is the birthplace of Alberto Hurtado, the second Chilean Catholic saint and founder of the Hogar de Cristo (Home of Christ) foundation, writer María Luisa Bombal (author of La Ultima Niebla (The Last Fog)), former Chilean president Patricio Aylwin, Environment minister María Ignacia Benítez, handball player Marco Oneto, tennis player Nicolás Massú, world champion boxer Patricia Demick andSlayer vocalist/bassist Tom Araya. It was also the home for Philips CEO and wealthy businessman Cor Dillen.
As a municipality, Viña del Mar is a third-level administrative division of Chile governed by a municipal council, headed by an alcalde(mayor) who is elected every four years. For the period of 2008–2012 the Mayor is Virginia Reginato Bozzo of right-wing (UDI).
In Congress, Viña del Mar in the Chamber of Deputies belongs to the 14th electoral district, while for the Senate it is part of the 6th Senatorial Valparaíso Coast District. In the Chamber of Deputies it is represented for the 2010–2014 period by Mr. Edmundo Eluchans of far-right (UDI) and Mr. Rodrigo González of centre-left (PPD). In the Senate the elected Senators representing Viña del Mar for an 8-year term (2010–2018) are Francisco Chahuán Chahuán of rightist (RN) and Ricardo Lagos Weber centre-left (PPD).
Currently in Viña del Mar are 6 shopping centers and one under construction:
- Mall Marina Arauco - Boulevard Marina Arauco
- Espacio Urbano 15 Norte (Urban Space 15 North)
- Espacio Urbano Viña Centro
- Open Plaza Santa Julia (Tottus/Homecenter)
- Portal Viña 1 Norte (Jumbo/Easy)
- Viña Outlet Park
- Portal Viña 14 Norte (construction cancelled in August 2014 by authorities)
- Provisiones Tío Beto (Wildo's Store)
Viña del Mar, along with the rest of the coastal municipalities of Greater Valparaíso, is part of the tourist area of the country, which has resulted in large dividends paid by this industry each year to the community. Viña del Mar has a wide range of hotels and embellished in order to improve its tourist appeal.
An important place is the Casino de Viña del Mar, which opened in 1930 and for years one of the few casinos in Chile. Today also owns the Hotel del Mar at the mercy of an expansion that, as an uncommon thing in the Chilean architecture, classic profile remained unaltered Casino. However, with the entry into force of thenew Act Casinos, which resulted in increased competition, viñamarino enclosure has suffered great economic losses, thus affecting the municipal coffers.
The industrial district of Viña del Mar is called El Salto. It is located in the place where the Estero Marga Marga Delta begins to appear. They give access to the metro and the South Trunk Highway.
Viña del Mar has the largest number of businesses in the city of Valparaíso, which, along with other areas of Santiago, is becoming a favorite for the business to make their investment locations. Forbes also considered one of the most exclusive resorts in Latin America, the level of Punta del Este in Uruguay, Pucón in southern Chile and Mar del Plata in Argentina.
Currently performed one of the most important events in Hispanic America haute couture, together with those of Buenos Aires, Santiago, Sao Paulo, and Rio de Janeiro.
The route used to get from Santiago to Vina del Mar is the Route CH-68 or Pacific Highway, which connects the capital to the city of Valparaiso.
The main routes connecting the city with other municipalities of Gran Valparaíso are:
- Avenida España, which connects Valparaíso with Viña.
- The Troncal and Troncal Norte Roads, link Viña with Quilpué and Villa Alemana.
- The Borgoño and Edmundo Eluchans avenues linking Reñaca Viña and Concon with the commune.
- The Way International and Southern Trunk Highway, allowing quick connection to and from the towns of the interior.
The busiest avenues of Viña del Mar, and virtually the entire Gran Valparaíso, are the main arteries in the community plan and the Población Vergara: Avenida San Martín, Avenida Libertad Quillota street, Viana-Alvares Aveneu, Avenida 1 Norte, Avenida Benidorm (former Av. 15 Norte), Avenida Agua Santa, Avenida La Marina, Avenida Borgoño and Av. Jorge Montt (Las Salinas Rect). This because they absorb all the traffic of workers and students moving from other municipalities to their work and study sites located in the plan from Valparaiso.
As of January 6, 2007 has been implemented Metropolitan Transportation Plan Greater Valparaíso which allows the communes of Valparaíso, Viña del Mar, Concon, Quilpué and Villa Alemana have an organized transportation system, which has the preferably provide order, security to users. And over all, speed of travel, for which the same routes of the previous system are made, but in an orderly manner, through the implementation of a GPS system, enabling the companies concerned to each business unit overseeing the entire course, speed and low frequency.
- "Municipality of Viña del Mar" (in Spanish). Retrieved November 15, 2010.
- "National Statistics Institute" (in Spanish). Retrieved August 10, 2010.
- "Chile Time". WorldTimeZones.org. Retrieved July 26, 2010.
- "Chile Summer Time". WorldTimeZones.org. Retrieved July 26, 2010.
- Chile: Ciudades, Pueblos, Aldeas y Caseríos 2005, Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas – June 2005.
- http://www.patrimoniovina.cl/index.php?ir=pags/det_nuestracasa.php paragraphs under Historia. Spanish only
- The Trolleybuses of Valparaíso, Chile (detailed history). Allen Morrison. 2006. Retrieved 2011-03-14.
- (French) Easy Voyage, "Le Chili 5 jours après le séisme", March 4, 2010 (accessed March 4, 2010)
- Instituto Profesional ARCOS
- "Gobierno de Chile: Intendentes" (in Spanish). Retrieved November 15, 2010.