jeudi 6 juin 2013

Croatia (Dubrovnik 2013)

 Dubrovnik nhìn từ tàu du lịch, mây bay là đà gần ngọn núi

                Franjo Tuđman Bridge lúc mặt trời hừng đông


                           Welcome to Dubrovnik

Dubrovnik là một thành phố của Croatia nằm bên bờ biển Adriatic. Đây là một trong những địa điểm du lịch nổi tiếng ở biển Adriatic, thành phố này là hải cảng và trung tâm của hạt Dubrovnik-Neretva. Dân số năm 2001 là 43.770 người. Năm 1979, thành phố này gia nhập danh sách Di sản thế giới của UNESCO.
Sự phát triển của Dubrovnik luôn dựa vào thương mại hàng hải. Vào thời trung cổ, Cộng hòa Ragusa, được biết đến là Cộng hòa Hàng hải (cùng Amalfi, Pisa, Genoa, Venice và các thành phố), Dubrovnik là quốc gia duy nhất ở phía đông Adriatic có khả năng cạnh tranh với Venice. Thành phố này phát triển rất mạnh vào thế kỷ 15 và 16. Năm 1991, sau sự sụp đổ của Nam Tư, thành phố này bị quân Serbia-Montenegro bao vây 7 tháng và bị tàn phá nặng nề bởi các cuộc pháo kích.

  lên đèo

                                                           sơn dương chào đón du khách


bokar fortress

                                 tòa giải tội

người thật giả làm tượng



                     Bokar Fortress in Dubrovnik, Croatia



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—  City  —
City of Dubrovnik
Grad Dubrovnik
The walled city of Dubrovnik


Coat of arms
Nickname(s): "Pearl of the Adriatic", "Thesaurum mundi"
1995 map of Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik is located in Croatia
The location of Dubrovnik within Croatia
Coordinates: 42°38′25″N 18°06′30″ECoordinates: 42°38′25″N 18°06′30″E
Country Croatia
County Dubrovnik-Neretva county
 • Mayor Andro Vlahušić (CPP)
 • City 21.35 km2 (8.24 sq mi)
Elevation 3 m (10 ft)
Population (2011)[1]
 • City 42,615
 • Density 2,000/km2 (5,200/sq mi)
 • Urban 28,113
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 20000
Area code(s) 020
Vehicle registration DU

Stradun, Dubrovnik's main street
Dubrovnik (pronounced [dǔbroːʋnik]), also known as Ragusa, is a city on the Adriatic Sea coast of Croatia, positioned at the terminal end of the Isthmus of Dubrovnik. It is one of the most prominent tourist destinations on the Adriatic, a seaport and the centre of Dubrovnik-Neretva county. Its total population is 42,641 (census 2011).[1] In 1979, the city of Dubrovnik joined the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites.
The prosperity of the city of Dubrovnik has long been based on maritime trade. In the Middle Ages, as the Republic of Ragusa, also known as a Maritime Republic (together with Amalfi, Pisa, Genoa, Venice and other Italian cities), it became the only eastern Adriatic city-state to rival Venice. Supported by its wealth and skilled diplomacy, the city achieved a high level of development, particularly during the 15th and 16th centuries.
The beginning of tourism in Dubrovnik is often associated with the construction of the late 19th-century luxury hotels in Croatia, such as Grand Hotel (1890) in Opatija and the Hotel Imperial (1897) in Dubrovnik.[2] According to CNNGo, Dubrovnik is among the 10 best medieval walled cities in the world.[3] Although Dubrovnik was demilitarised in the 1970s to protect it from war, in 1991, after the breakup of Yugoslavia, it was besieged by Serb-Montenegrin forces for seven months and received significant shelling damage.



In Croatian, the city is known as Dubrovnik; in Italian as Ragusa (pronounced [raˈɡ]); and in Latin as Ragusium. Its historical name in Greek is Raugia (Ραυγια) or Ragousa (Ραγούσα).
The current Croatian name was officially adopted in 1918 after the fall of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, but it was in use from the Middle Ages. It is also referred to as Dubrovnik in the first official document of the treaty with the Ban of Bosnia Ban Kulin in 1189.



Historical lore indicates that Dubrovnik (Ragusa) was founded in the 7th century on a rocky island named Laus, which provided shelter for refugees from the nearby city of Epidaurum.[4]
Another theory appeared recently, based on new archaeological excavations. New findings (a Byzantine basilica from the 8th century and parts of the city walls) contradict the traditional theory. The size of the old basilica clearly indicates that there was quite a large settlement at the time. There is also increasing support in the scientific community[who?] for the theory that major construction of Ragusa took place before the Common Era. This "Greek theory" has been boosted by recent findings of numerous Greek artifacts during excavations in the Port of Dubrovnik. Also, drilling below the main city road has revealed natural sand, contradicting the theory of Laus (Lausa) island.
Dr Antun Ničetić, in his book Povijest dubrovačke luke ("History of the Port of Dubrovnik"), expounds the theory that Dubrovnik was established by Greek sailors. A key element in this theory is the fact that ships in ancient times travelled about 45–50 nautical miles (83–93 km; 52–58 mi) per day, and required a sandy shore to pull out of water for the rest period during the night. The ideal rest site would have fresh water source in its vicinity. Dubrovnik has both, and is situated almost halfway between the two known Greek settlements of Budva and Korčula, 95 nautical miles (176 km; 109 mi) apart from each other.

The Republic

Ragusa before the earthquake 1667, Photogravure Kowalczyk 1909

Coat of Arms of the Republic of Ragusa

Stairs of Dubrovnik
After the fall of the Ostrogothic Kingdom, the town came under the protection of the Byzantine Empire. Ragusa in those medieval centuries had a population of Latinized Illyrians.[5] After the Crusades, Ragusa came under the sovereignty of Venice (1205–1358), which would give its institutions to the Dalmatian city. After a fire destroyed almost the whole city in the night of August 16, 1296, a new urban plan was developed.[6][7][8] By the Peace Treaty of Zadar in 1358, Ragusa achieved relative independence as a vassal-state of the Kingdom of Hungary.

Independent Republic of Ragusa in 1494 (as seen on an enlarged map of Italy)
Between the 14th century and 1808, Ragusa ruled itself as a free state, although it was a vassal from 1440 to 1804 of the Ottoman Empire and paid an annual tribute to its sultan.[9] The Republic reached its peak in the 15th and 16th centuries, when its thalassocracy rivalled that of the Republic of Venice and other Italian maritime republics.
For centuries, the Republic of Ragusa was an ally of Ancona, the other Adriatic maritime republic rival of Venice, which was the Ottoman Empire's chief rival for control of the Adriatic. This alliance enabled the two towns set on opposite sides of the Adriatic to resist attempts by the Venetians to make the Adriatic a "Venetian Bay", also said[by whom?] to control directly or indirectly all the Adriatic ports. Ancona and Ragusa developed an alternative trade route to the Venetian (Venice-Germany-Austria): this route started from the East, passed through Ragusa and Ancona, then interested Florence and finally Flanders.
The Republic of Ragusa received its own Statutes as early as 1272, statutes which, among other things, codified Roman practice and local customs. The Statutes included prescriptions for town planning and the regulation of quarantine (for sanitary reasons).[10]
The Republic was an early adopter of what are now regarded as modern laws and institutions: a medical service was introduced in 1301, with the first pharmacy, still operating to this day, being opened in 1317. An almshouse was opened in 1347, and the first quarantine hospital (Lazarete) was established in 1377. Slave trading was abolished in 1418, and an orphanage opened in 1432. A 20 km (12 mi) water supply system was constructed in 1436.
The city was ruled by the local aristocracy which was of Latin-Dalmatian extraction and formed two city councils. As usual for the time, they maintained a strict system of social classes. The republic abolished the slave trade early in the 15th century and valued liberty highly. The city successfully balanced its sovereignty between the interests of Venice and the Ottoman Empire for centuries.
The languages spoken by the people were the Romance Dalmatian and Croatian. The latter started to replace Dalmatian little by little since the 11th century among the common people who inhabited the city.
Italian and Venetian would become important languages of culture and trade in the Republic of Ragusa. The Italian language replaced Latin as official language of the Republic of Ragusa from 1472 until the end of the republic itself.[citation needed] At the same time, due to a pacific cohabitation with the Slavic element and the influence of Italian culture during the Renaissance, Ragusa became a cradle of Croatian literature.

Onofrio's Fountain
The economic wealth of the Republic was partially the result of the land it developed, but especially of seafaring trade. With the help of skilled diplomacy, Ragusa's merchants travelled lands freely and on the sea the city had a huge fleet of merchant ships (argosy) that travelled all over the world. From these travels they founded some settlements, from India to America, and brought parts of their culture and flora home with them. One of its keys to success was not conquering, but trading and sailing under a white flag with the word Latin: Libertas(freedom) prominently featured on it. The flag was adopted when slave trading was abolished in 1418.
Many Conversos, Jews from Spain and Portugal, were attracted to the city. In May 1544, a ship landed there filled exclusively with Portuguese refugees, as Balthasar de Faria reported to King John. During this time there worked in the city one of the most famous cannon and bell founders of his time: Ivan Rabljanin (Magister Johannes Baptista Arbensis de la Tolle). Already in 1571 Dubrovnik sold its protectorate over some Christian settlements in other parts of the Ottoman Empire to France and Venice. At that time there was also a colony of Dubrovnik in Fes in Morocco. The bishop of Dubrovnik was a Cardinal protector in 1571. Cardinal protectors were only in 16 other countries, too, in 1571, namely in France, Spain, Austria, Portugal, Poland, England, Scotland, Ireland, Naples, Sicily, Sardinia, Savoy, Lucca, Greece, Illyria, Armenia and Lebanon.

Ragusan territory before 1808
The Republic gradually declined after a crisis in Mediterranean shipping and the catastrophic earthquake of 1667[11] killed over 5,000 citizens and levelled most of the public buildings, ruining the well-being of the Republic. In 1699, the Republic sold two mainland patches of its territory to the Ottomans in order to avoid being caught in the clash with advancing Venetian forces. Today this strip of land belongs to Bosnia and Herzegovina and is that country's only direct access to the Adriatic. A highlight of Dubrovnik's diplomacy was the involvement in the American Revolution.[12]
In 1806, the city surrendered to the Napoleonic army,[13] as that was the only way to end a month long siege by the Russian-Montenegrin fleets (during which 3,000 cannonballs fell on the city). At first, Napoleon demanded only free passage for his troops, promising not to occupy the territory and stressing that the French were friends of the Ragusans. Later, however, French forces blockaded the harbours, forcing the government to give in and let French troops enter the city. On this day, all flags and coats of arms above the city walls were painted black as a sign of mourning. In 1808, Marshal Marmont abolished the republic and integrated its territory first into Napoleon's Kingdom of Italy and later into the Illyrian provinces under French rule. This was to last until the 28th January 1814 when the city surrendered to Captain Sir William Hoste leading a body of British and Austrian troops who were besieging the fortress.


The official language until 1472 was Latin. Later, the Senate of the Republic decided that the official language of the Republic would be the Ragusan dialect of the Romance Dalmatian language, and forbade the use of the Slavic language in senatorial debate. The Gospari (the Aristocracy) held on to their language for many centuries, while it slowly disappeared.
Although the Latin language was in official use, inhabitants of the republic were[when?] mostly native speakers of Slavonic languages (as confirmed[clarification needed] by count Pyotr Andreyevich Tolstoy in 1698, when he noted "In Dalmatia [...] Ragusans [...] call themselves Croats"[14]). The Dalmatian language was also spoken in the city.
The Italian language as spoken in the republic was heavily influenced by the Venetian language and the Tuscan dialect. Italian took root among the Dalmatian Romance-speaking merchant upper classes, as a result of Venetian influence.[15]

Austrian rule

When the Habsburg Empire annexed these provinces after the 1815 Congress of Vienna, the new authorities implemented a bureaucratic administration, established the Kingdom of Dalmatia, which had its own Sabor (Diet) or Parliament, based in the city of Zadar, and political parties such as the Autonomist Party and the People's Party. They introduced a series of modifications intended to slowly centralize the bureaucratic, tax, religious, educational, and trade structure. Unfortunately for the local residents, these steps largely failed, despite the intention of wanting to stimulate the economy. And once the personal, political and economic damage of the Napoleonic Wars had been overcome, new movements began to form in the region, calling for a political reorganization of the Adriatic along the national lines.[citation needed]
The combination of these two forces—a flawed Habsburg administrative system and new national movement claiming ethnicity as the founding block toward a community—posed a particularly perplexing problem; since Dalmatia was a province ruled by the German-speaking Habsburg monarchy, with bilingual (Slavic- and Italian-speaking) elites that dominated the general population consisting of a Slavic Catholic majority (and a Slavic Orthodox minority of not more than 300 people).[citation needed]

Ragusan Flag "Libertas"
In 1815, the former Ragusan Government (its noble assembly) met for the last time in Ljetnikovac in Mokošica. Once again, extreme measures were taken to re-establish the Republic, but it was all in vain. After the fall of the Republic most of the aristocracy was recognized by the Austrian Empire.
In 1832, Baron Šišmundo Getaldić-Gundulić (Italian: Sigismondo Ghetaldi-Gondola) was (1795–1860) was elected podestà of Dubrovnik, serving for 13 years; the Austrian government granted him the title of "Baron".
Count Rafael Pucić (Raffaele Pozza), Dr. Jur., (1828–90) was elected for first time Podestà of Dubrovnik in the year 1869 after this was re-elected in 1872, 1875, 1882, 1884) and elected twice into the Dalmatian Council, 1870, 1876. The victory of the Nationalists in Split (Spalato) in 1882 strongly affected in the areas of Korčula and Dubrovnik. It was greeted by the mayor (podestà) of Dubrovnik Rafael Pucić, the National Reading Club of Dubrovnik, the Workers Association of Dubrovnik and the review "Slovinac"; by the communities of Kuna and Orebić, the latter one getting the nationalist government even before Split.
The Austrian and Austro-Hungarian rule that followed folloved the Divide et impera policy. The Austrian policy of denationalizing the Dalmatian coasts left its mark in the political division of the population as best expressed in the political parties: the Croatian People's Party and the mostly Italianite Autonomous Party.[citation needed]
In 1889, the Serbian-Catholics circle supported Baron Francesco Ghetaldi-Gondola, the candidate of the Autonomous Party, vs the candidate of Popular Party Vlaho de Giulli, in the 1890 election to the Dalmatian Diet.[16] The following year, during the local government election, the Autonomous Party won the municipal re-election with Francesco Gondola, who died in power in 1899. The alliance won the election again on 27 May 1894. Francesco Ghetaldi-Gondola founded the Società Philately on 4 December 1890.
In 1905, the Committee for establishing electric tram service, headed by m. Luko Bunić – certainly one of the most deserving persons who contributed to the realisation of the project - was established. Other members of the Committee were: Ivo Papi, Dr. Miho Papi, Dr. Artur Saraka, Mato Šarić, Dr. Antun Pugliesi, Dr. Mato Gracić, Dr. Ivo Degiulli, Ernest Katić and Antun Milić.[17]
Pero Čingrija (1837–1921), one of the leaders of the People's Party in Dalmatia, played the main role in the merger of the People's Party and the Party of Right into a single Croatian Party in 1905.


With the fall of Austria–Hungary in 1918, the city was incorporated into the new Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (later the Kingdom of Yugoslavia). The name of the city was officially changed from Ragusa to Dubrovnik.
During World War II, Dubrovnik became part of the Nazi allied Independent State of Croatia, occupied by the Italian army first, and by the German army after 8 September 1943. In October 1944 Tito's partisans entered Dubrovnik, and it became consequently part of Communist Yugoslavia. Soon after their arrival into the city, partisans executed approximately 78 influential and well known citizens without a trial, including Catholic priests, on the nearby island of Daksa.[18] Communist leadership during the next several years continued the prosecution of Croats which culminated on 12 April 1947 with the capture and imprisonment of more than 90 citizens of Dubrovnik.[19]

Break-up of Yugoslavia

Dubrovnik Shelling (black dots) 1991 to 1992.
In 1991 Croatia and Slovenia, which at that time were republics within Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, declared their independence. At that event, Socialist Republic of Croatia was renamed Republic of Croatia.
Despite demilitarization of the old town in early 1970s in an attempt to prevent it from ever becoming a casualty of war, following Croatia's independence in 1991, Serbian-Montenegrin remains of the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) attacked the city. The regime in Montenegro led by president of Montenegro, Momir Bulatović, and Prime minister of Montenegro, Milo Đukanović, which was installed by and loyal to the Serbian government led by Slobodan Milošević, declared that Dubrovnik would not be permitted to remain in Croatia because they claimed it was historically part of Montenegro.[20] This was in spite of the large Croat majority in the city and that very few Montenegrins resided there, though Serbs accounted for six percent of the population.[20] Many consider the claims by the Bulatović-Đukanović government, as being part of Serbian President Milošević's plan to deliver his nationalist supporters the Greater Serbia they desired as Yugoslavia collapsed.[20]
On October 1, 1991 Dubrovnik was attacked by JNA with a siege of Dubrovnik that lasted for seven months. The heaviest artillery attack was on December 6 with 19 people killed and 60 wounded. Total casualties in the conflict according to Croatian Red Cross were 114 killed civilians, among them celebrated poet Milan Milisić. Foreign newspapers have been criticised for exaggerating the damage sustained by the old town, instead of responding to human casualties.[21] Nonetheless, the artillery attacks on Dubrovnik damaged 56% of its buildings to some degree, as the historic walled city, a UNESCO world heritage site, sustained 650 hits by artillery rounds.[22] The Croatian Army lifted the siege in May 1992, and liberated Dubrovnik's surroundings by the end of October, but the danger of sudden attacks by the JNA lasted for another three years.[23]
Following the end of the war, damage caused by the shelling of the Old Town was repaired. Adhering to UNESCO guidelines, repairs were performed in the original style. As of 2005, most damage had been repaired. The inflicted damage can be seen on a chart near the city gate, showing all artillery hits during the siege, and is clearly visible from high points around the city in the form of the more brightly coloured new roofs. ICTY indictments were issued for JNA generals and officers involved in the bombing.
General Pavle Strugar, who coordinated the attack on the city, was sentenced to an eight-year prison term by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia for his role in the attack.
The 1996 Croatia USAF CT-43 crash, near Dubrovnik Airport, killed everyone on a United States Air Force jet with United States Secretary of Commerce Ron Brown, The New York Times Frankfurt Bureau chief Nathaniel C. Nash and 33 other people.


Old City of Dubrovnik
Native name
Croatian: Stari grad Dubrovnik
The Old Harbour at Dubrovnik
Location Dubrovnik-Neretva County,  Croatia

Type Cultural
Criteria i, iii, iv
Designated 1979 (3rd Session)
Reference No. 95
Europe and North America
Extension 1994
Endangered 1991–1998

Official name: Stari grad Dubrovnik
The annual Dubrovnik Summer Festival is a 45 day-long cultural event with live plays, concerts, and games. It has been awarded a Gold International Trophy for Quality (2007) by the Editorial Office in collaboration with the Trade Leaders Club.
The patron saint of the city is Sveti Vlaho (Saint Blaise), whose statues are seen around the city. He has an importance similar to that of St. Mark the Evangelist to Venice. One of the larger churches in city is named after Saint Blaise. February 3 is the feast of Sveti Vlaho (Saint Blaise), who is the city's patron saint. Every year the city of Dubrovnik celebrates the holiday with Mass, parades, and festivities that last for several days.[24]
The Old Town of Dubrovnik is depicted on the reverse of the Croatian 50 kuna banknote, issued in 1993 and 2002.[25]
The city boasts of many old buildings, such as the Arboretum Trsteno, the oldest arboretum in the world, dating back to before 1492. Also, the third oldest European pharmacy is located in the city, which dates back to 1317 (and is the only one still in operation today). It is located at Little Brothers monastery in Dubrovnik.[26]
In history, many Conversos (Marranos) were attracted to Dubrovnik, formerly a considerable seaport. In May 1544, a ship landed there filled exclusively with Portuguese refugees, as Balthasar de Faria reported to King John. Another admirer of Dubrovnik, George Bernard Shaw, visited the city in 1929 and said: "If you want to see heaven on earth, come to Dubrovnik."
In the bay of Dubrovnik is the 72-hectare wooded island of Lokrum, where according to legend, Richard the Lionheart was cast ashore after being shipwrecked in 1192. The island includes a fortress, botanical garden, monastery and naturist beach.
Among the many tourist destinations are a few beaches. Banje, Dubrovnik's main public beach, is home to the Eastwest Beach Club. There is also Copacabana Beach, a stony beach on the Lapad peninsula,[27] named after the popular beach in Rio de Janeiro.
Dubrovnik has also been mentioned in popular film and theatre. In the film 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea with Michael Caine, one of the characters said to have been dreaming of fairy from Dubrovnik (motive known from local legends and literature). In the 1968 movie Rosemary's Baby, Rosemary tells her husband Guy that he is "in Dubrovnik" when he attempts to talk with her after she discovers he has made a pact with the devil to use her womb to bear Satan's son.
Ivan Gundulić, a 17th-century Croatian writer, predicted the downfall of the great Turkish Empire in his poem Osman.

Important monuments

Rooftops in Dubrovnik's Old City, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Bokar fortress

Aerial view of Dubrovnik from the southwest
Few of Dubrovnik's Renaissance buildings survived the earthquake of 1667 but fortunately enough remained to give an idea of the city's architectural heritage.[28] The finest Renaissance highlight is the Sponza Palace which dates from the 16th century and is currently used to house the National Archives.[29] The Rector's Palace is a Gothic-Renaissance structure that displays finely carved capitals and an ornate staircase. It now houses a museum.[30][31] Its façade is depicted on the reverse of the Croatian 50 kuna banknote, issued in 1993 and 2002.[25] The St. Saviour Church is another remnant of the Renaissance period, next to the much-visited Franciscan Monastery.[26][32][33] The Franciscan monastery's library possesses 30,000 volumes, 216 incunabula, 1,500 valuable handwritten documents. Exhibits include a 15th-century silver-gilt cross and silver thurible, an 18th-century crucifix from Jerusalem, a martyrology (1541) by Bemardin Gucetic and illuminated psalters.[26]
Dubrovnik's most beloved church is St Blaise's church, built in the 18th century in honour of Dubrovnik's patron saint. Dubrovnik's baroque Cathedral was built in the 18th century and houses an impressive Treasury with relics of Saint Blaise. The city's Dominican Monastery resembles a fortress on the outside but the interior contains an art museum and a Gothic-Romanesque church.[34][35] A special treasure of the Dominican monastery is its library with 216 incunabula, numerous illustrated manuscripts, a rich archive with precious manuscripts and documents and an extensive art collection.[36][37][38]

Walls of Dubrovnik

A feature of Dubrovnik is its walls that run almost 2 km (1.24 mi) around the city. The walls run from four to six metres thick on the landward side but are much thinner on the seaward side. The system of turrets and towers were intended to protect the vulnerable city.[39]


Historical populations
of Dubrovnik
Year Pop.   ±%  
1880 15,666 —    
1890 15,329 −2.2%
1900 17,384 +13.4%
1910 18,396 +5.8%
1921 16,719 −9.1%
1931 20,420 +22.1%
1948 21,778 +6.7%
1953 24,296 +11.6%
1961 27,793 +14.4%
1971 35,628 +28.2%
1981 46,025 +29.2%
1991 51,597 +12.1%
2001 43,770 −15.2%
2011 42,615 −2.6%
Source: Naselja i stanovništvo Republike Hrvatske 1857–2001, DZS, Zagreb, 2005

Franjo Tuđman Bridge
The total population of the city is 42,641 (census 2011), in the following settlements:[1]
The population was 42,615 in 2011,[40] down from 49,728 in 1991[41] In the 2011 census, approximately 90,34% of the population was Croat.


Dubrovnik has an international airport of its own. It is located approximately 20 km (12 mi) from Dubrovnik city centre, near Čilipi. Buses connect the airport with the Dubrovnik old main bus station in Gruž. In addition, a network of modern, local buses connects all Dubrovnik neighbourhoods running frequently from dawn to midnight. However, Dubrovnik, unlike Croatia's other major centres, is not accessible by rail;[42] until 1975 Dubrovnik was connected to Mostar and Sarajevo by a narrow gauge railway(760 mm)[43][44] built during the Austro-Hungarian rule of Bosnia.
The A1 highway, in use between Zagreb and Vrgorac, is planned to be extended all the way to Dubrovnik. The highway will cross the Pelješac Bridge which is currently under construction. An alternative plan proposes the highway running from Neum through Bosnia and Herzegovina and an expressway continuing to Dubrovnik. However, this plan has fallen out of favour.


Dubrovnik has a number of educational institutions. These include Dubrovnik International University, the University of Dubrovnik, a Nautical College, a Tourism College, a University Centre for Postgraduate Studies of the University of Zagreb, American College of Management and Technology, Diocesan Classical Gymnasium "Ruđer Bošković" in Dubrovnik and an Institute of History of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts.


Dubrovnik has a borderline humid subtropical (Cfa) and Mediterranean climate (Csa) in the Köppen climate classification, since only two summer months have less than 40 millimetres (1.6 in) of rainfall, preventing it from being classified as solely humid subtropical or Mediterranean. It has hot, moderately dry summers and mild, wet winters. The Bura wind blows uncomfortably cold gusts down the Adriatic coast between October and April, and thundery conditions are common all the year round, even in summer, when they interrupt the warm, sunny days. The air temperatures can slightly vary, depending on the area or region. Typically, in July and August daytime maximum temperatures reach 35 °C (95 °F), and at night drop to around 23 °C (73 °F). More comfortable, perhaps, is the climate in Spring and Autumn when maximum temperatures are typically between 20 °C (68 °F) and 28 °C (82 °F).
  • Air temperature
    • average annual
16.4 °C (61.5 °F)
  • average of coldest period=January
10 °C (50 °F)
  • average of warmest period=August
25.8 °C (78.4 °F)
  • Sea temperature
    • average May–September
17.9–23.8 °C (64–75 °F)
1,020.8 mm
  • average annual rain days
  • Sunshine
    • average annual
2629 h
  • average daily hours
7.2 h
[hide]Climate data for Dubrovnik
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 12
Average low °C (°F) 6
Precipitation mm (inches) 147
Avg. precipitation days 11 11 9 8 8 4 3 3 6 9 13 13 98
Mean monthly sunshine hours 127.1 130.0 167.4 201.0 263.5 306.0 353.4 334.8 261.0 213.9 117.0 99.2 2,574.3

International relations

Twin towns – sister cities

Dubrovnik is twinned with:[45]



Panoramic view of the Old Town of Dubrovnik
Panoramic view from the Old Harbour


In popular culture

Dubrovnik is also currently being used to represent the city of King's Landing in the HBO adaptation of George R.R. Martin's A Song of Ice and Fire series of fantasy novels. Locations used in filming include St. Dominic Street, Lokrum Island, The Knežev dvor and Sponza palaces, Lovrijenac (Fort of St. Lawrence), and Fort Bokar and the Minčeta tower.[50]

See also



  1. ^ a b c "Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011, First Results by Settlements" (HTML). Statistical Reports (in Croatian and English) (Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics) (1441). June 2011. ISSN 1332-0297. Retrieved 2011-09-15.
  2. ^ Croatia Business Law Handbook, World Strategic and Business Information Library, p. 249, USA International Business Publications, Edition 6, 2007. ISBN 978-1-4330-0882-5
  3. ^ 10 best medieval walled cities on
  4. ^ Andrew Archibald Paton (1862). "Chapter 9: Ragusa". Researches on the Danube and the Adriatic; or Contributions to the Modern History of Hungary and Transylvania, Dalmatia and Croatia, Servia and Bulgaria, Volume 1. London: Trübner and Co. p. 218.
  5. ^ Ragusa was an island originally
  6. ^ Dubrovnik: A History, page 289, Robin Harris, Saqi Books, 2006. ISBN 9780863569593
  7. ^ Dubrovnik, 2nd: The Bradt City Guide, page 7, Piers Letcher, Robin McKelvie, Jenny McKelvie, Bradt Travel Guides, 2007. ISBN 9781841621913
  8. ^ Dubrovnik, page 25, Volume 581 of Variorum collected studies series, Bariša Krekić, Variorum, 1997. ISBN 9780860786313
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Further reading

  • F. K. Hutchinson (1909). "Ragusa". Motoring in the Balkans. Chicago: McClurg & Co. OCLC 8647011.

External links

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